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Stomatognathic system and posture: review of scientific literature
The thesis, through a review of the literature, aims to investigate the relationships between malocclusion, temporomandibular joint disorders and posture, as well as the link between ATM and adjacent receptor systems, such as eye receptors. The research was carried out on the PubMed biomedical database and found 24 potentially eligible studies. The criteria for inclusion and exclusion from the study were therefore established. After an evaluation based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 articles were selected. Population: subjects suffering from TMJ imbalances or malocclusion, men and / or women aged between 4 and 60 years. Intervention: '' malocclusion and wrong posture '' i.e. subjects in which malocclusion is associated with postural disorders, '' temporomandibular exercises '', i.e. treatment aimed at temporomandibular dysfunction, '' ocular convergence disorder '' i.e. association between malocclusion and alteration of the ocular receptor. Outcome: studies demonstrating a relationship between posture and occlusion, '' effects of exercise on masticatory muscles '' are evaluated to support the importance of treatment in the management of temporomandibular imbalances and painful symptoms, '' relation on ocular disorder '' to establish the relationship between the stomatognathic system and sensory receptors. The studies examined suggest that morphological modifications of the TMJ influence posture and vice versa postural alterations determine imbalances and tensions at the level of the temporomandibular joint. Considering the still small number of methods and tools available to evaluate these dysfunctions, it is possible to correlate the phenomena without being able to establish precise cause and effect relationships. The review also demonstrated the existence of relationships between the receptor and postural systems of the body. A noticeable improvement in painful symptoms was evidenced following cervical mobilization, exercises to lengthen the masticatory muscles and self-mobilizations performed by the patient; as well as an improvement in postural control was found in those patients with TMD treated with non-specific mobilization. According to considerations made, it is not possible to establish with the instruments available today a real cause-effect relationship between ATM and posture, although the selected studies emphasize the existence of relationships and reciprocal influences between the stomatognathic system and postural system. The thesis can be considered a first step to stimulate and deepen a multicenter study, which involves more specialists and which foresees a more consistent research sample to confirm the connections of the postural system from the perspective of the body as a whole thing.