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The paper will present the first discussions on man as an individual from the early Renaissance to the early 17th century in Central Europe from northern Italy to Russia (Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino, Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, Cristophoro Landino, Angelo Poliziano, Girolamo Savonarola, St. Maximus the Greek, Montaigne, Blaise Pascal). This aggravation of thought occurred even more evidently after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and with the conclusion of the Florentine Union. The article will include a discussion of literary and philosophical achievements that thematized the individual, the limits of his freedom and the possibilities of his transcendence. The origin of these views can be traced back to previous thoughts of Italian-Greek origin and to Byzantine historical-theological philological literacy (Francesco Petrarca, Dante Alighieri, Maximus Planudes, J. Gemistes, J. Chrysolaros).